Peter Smith

Publications, Lectures and Other Stuff

On ‘Islam-Related Movements’

A video on ‘Islam-related movements’:


By Peter Smith. A summary of a recent academic article from the Sage Reference Encyclopedia of Global Studies.

A study of an array of religious groups and movements which have developed within the Islamic world which have a distant or ambiguous relationship to the various sects of mainstream Islam.  I identify four such streams of ‘Islam-related movements’:

 -1. A diverse assortment of Middle Eastern sects (the Yazidis, Nusayris (Alawites), Druze, Alevis, Bektashis, Ahl-e Haqq and Hurufis);

-2. Some modern religious movements with their own prophetic traditions (the Babis, Baha’is and Ahmadiyya);

-3. Various expressions of ‘global Sufism’;

-4. African-American groups which have established a heterodox Islamic identity.


On ‘Extramural’ Religious Movements and Traditions, see:


A preliminary bibliography:

Academic study of these movements varies considerably in its extent and in some instances diverges from the groups’ modern self-presentation – which in several instances can be tracked through the movements’ own online websites.

Unorthodox groups in the Middle East.

MattiMoosa. Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat Sects. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1988.

Mordechai Nisan. Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self Expression. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002.


VesselinBosakov. ‘Religious and sociocultural dimensions of the Kazalbashi community in Bulgaria’.FactaUniversitatis (University of Niš) 2/6 (1999), pp. 277-83.

Tord Olsson, Elizabeth ึzdalga and Catherine Raudvere (eds.) Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives. Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 1998.

David Shankland. The Alevis of Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. London: Routledge, 2003.

Martin S๖kefield.‘Religion or culture?Concepts of identity in the Alevi diaspora’.In WaltraudKokot, Khachig T๖l๖lyan and Carolin Alfonso (eds.) Diaspora, Identity and Religion. Abingdon: Routledge, 2004.

Paul White and JoostnJongerden.Turkey’s Alevi Enigma: A Comprehensive Overview. Leiden: Brill, 2003.


J. K. Birge. The Bektashi Order of Dervishes. London: Luzac, 1937.


Robert Brenton Betts. The Druze. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Nissim Dana. The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2003.

Kais M. Firro. A History of theDruzes. Leiden: Brill, 1992.

Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin. The Druze: A New Study of their History, Faith and Society. Leiden: Brill, 1984.

Nusayris (Alawis).

Meir Mikhael Bar-Asher and AriehKofsky.The NusayriAlawi Religion: An Enquiry into its Theology and Liturgy. Leiden: Brill, 2002.


Shahzad Bashir. FazlallahAstarabadi and the Hurufis. Oxford: Oneworld, 2005.


Andreas Ackermann. ‘A double minority: Notes on the emerging Yezidi diaspora’. In WaltraudKokot, Khachig T๖l๖lyan and Carolin Alfonso (eds.) Diaspora, Identity and Religion. Abingdon: Routledge, 2004.


Abbas Amanat. Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, 1844-1850. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Todd Lawson. Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam: Qur’an, Exegesis, Messianism and Literary Origins of the Babi Religion. London: Routledge, 2011.

Todd Lawson and OmidGhaemmaghami (eds.) Collected Essays on the Writings of the Bแb. Oxford: George Ronald, 2012.

Denis MacEoin. The Messiah of Shiraz: Studies in Early and Middle Babism. Brill, 2008.

The Baha’i Faith.

Peter Smith. The Babi and Baha’i Religions: From Messianic Shi‘ism to a World Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Peter Smith. A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah Faith. Oxford: Oneworld, 2000.

Peter Smith. An Introduction to the Baha’i Faith, Its History and Teachings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Margit Warburg. Citizens of the World: A History and Sociology of the Baha’is in Globalization Perspective. Brill, 2006.


YohananFriedmann. Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Sufism in the West.

Carl W. Ernst and Bruce B. Lawrence.Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Franklin Lewis. Rumi Past and Present, East and West. Oxford: Oneworld, 2007.

Marcia Hermansen. ‘Sufism and American women’.World History Connected. []

Jamal Malik and John R. Hinnells (ed.) Sufism in the West. New York: Routledge, 2006.

David Westerlund (ed.) Sufism in Europe and North America. Abingdon: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Islam and African Americans.

Edward E. Curtis IV. Islam in Black America. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Muslims in America: A Short History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.

E. U. Essien-Udom. Black Nationalism: The Search for an Identity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (ed.) The Muslims of America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Sherman A. Jackson.Islam and the Blackamerican: Looking Toward the Third Resurrection. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Michael A. K๖szegi and J. Gordon Melton.Islam in North America: A Sourcebook. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.

C. Eric Lincoln. The Black Muslims in America. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing, 1994.

Sulayman Nyang. Islam in the United States of America. Chicago: Kazi Publications, 1999.

Richard Brent Turner. Islam in the African-American Experience. 2nd ed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003.


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This entry was posted on September 4, 2013 by in Religion (Academic Study of) and tagged .
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